The most popular two rounds of electricity reform

2022-08-07
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The two rounds of power reform urge traditional power generation enterprises to be reborn

2018 is a historical moment marking the 40th anniversary of China's reform and opening up, and also an important node marking the 16th anniversary of the power reform in 2002 and the 3rd anniversary of the new power reform in 2015. The power generation enterprises represented by the five power generation groups have gone through ups and downs and experienced a series of major events. They have not only seized new development opportunities, but also met major changes and severe challenges. It is these challenges, changes and opportunities, especially the two rounds of power reform, that have honed, improved and achieved the power producers, urged the traditional power generation enterprises to undergo fundamental changes, struggled to catch up with the pace of market-oriented reform of the whole society, and opened a new journey of transformation, upgrading, innovation and development in the new era

characteristics of traditional power generation enterprises

looking back before the power reform in 2002, what impression did traditional power generation enterprises leave to the society? Deep in my memory, it is often like this: the integrated operation of generation, transmission and distribution, with a high degree of monopoly and concentration; A power generation enterprise is equivalent to a power generation workshop. If we do a good job in safe production and stabilize employees, everything will be fine; "As soon as the motor rings, there are thousands of gold", with high wages, high welfare and high social status; Power shortage, planning system, government pricing, unified purchase and marketing; Single power supply, extra large coal power, high energy consumption and high emission; There is a general lack of market awareness, benefit awareness, customer awareness and environmental awareness. Thanks to its unique advantages, the electric power people have become the envy of the society and the object of social discussion and media criticism

with the launch of two rounds of power reform, which are diversified and open, encouraging competition and marketization, power generation enterprises promote change in competition and seek development in change. After years of honing and hard work, the characteristics of traditional power generation enterprises are weakening and fading. The "arrogance and correction" of power people has become a historical mark. Power generation enterprises are fighting ahead in the tide of market-oriented reform, energy transformation and interconnected development, Resonance with the society

two rounds of electricity reform, highlighting market competition

the first round of electricity reform was the "No. 5" document in february2002, with the main task of "separating power plants and bidding". At the same time, pilot power markets in Northeast China, East China and other regions have been carried out, as well as exploration on separation of main and auxiliary power, energy-saving power generation dispatching, direct transaction of large users, power generation right transaction, rural power system reform, etc

reform promotes vitality and competition promotes development. Although the bidding was stranded and the direct supply of large users was blocked, the power reform in 2002 greatly stimulated the vitality of the development of the power generation industry, and the "fission effect" of plant separation was unexpected. The diversity of investors, the intensity of horse racing and enclosure, the active development pattern, the rapid expansion of scale and the extensive benchmarking management are absolutely unprecedented. Moreover, the power supply structure has been continuously optimized, the power generation technology and equipment level have been continuously improved, the coal consumption and line loss rate of power generation have been continuously reduced, and the power generation industry has achieved leapfrog development. In particular, the five new power generation groups are like "five tigers descending from the mountain". No one is willing to fall behind. From power and coal resources to installed capacity and coal production capacity, from traditional energy to new energy, from capital construction cost to production and operation cost, from power and coal market to capital and talent market, from new projects to mergers and acquisitions, they have launched fierce competition. By the end of 2015, China's installed capacity had reached 1.53 billion kw, ranking first in the world. In 13 years, the newly installed capacity was 1.17 billion kw, equivalent to 4.3 times of the total installed capacity of 360million kW in the 53 years from 1949 to 2002; The annual average new capacity was 90million kW, 13.4 times that of the previous 53 years. Among them, the five power generation groups have developed rapidly, increasing from 353million kW in 2002 to 665million kW in 2015, which has made great contributions to the continuous realization of three historic leaps in China's installed capacity of 500million kW, 1billion kW and 1.5 billion kw, the rapid reversal of the "power shortage" situation, and the realization of the overall balance of power supply and demand in the whole society. However, Li and Bai, two middle-aged women, have made great contributions regardless of their husbands and children

2002 electricity reform, although mixed in praise and criticism, did stimulate development vitality, formed a preliminary pattern of market competition, and solved the major problem of "electricity shortage". So far, in addition to the administrative approval of construction projects, the government pricing of electricity prices, and the inability of power sellers to make their own choices, power generation enterprises have removed their monopoly hats and entered the "commercial" competitive industries confirmed by the SASAC

the second round of electricity reform is the "No. 9" document in march2015, which mainly includes "three liberalizing, one independence and three strengthening". That is, orderly liberalize the competitive link electricity price other than transmission and distribution, orderly liberalize the power distribution business to social capital, and orderly liberalize the power generation and utilization plan other than public welfare and regulatory; Trading institutions are relatively independent; Deepen research on regional power, transmission and distribution systems. At the same time, we will strengthen government supervision, overall planning, safe and reliable supply, and build an institutional framework of "controlling the middle and opening up the two ends". The core is to establish a market system with laws to follow, separation of government from enterprises, standardization of subjects, fair trading, reasonable prices and effective supervision

at present, the new electricity reform has made positive progress. It has not only basically set up trading institutions, fully covered the reform of transmission and distribution electricity prices, expected that the market-based trading electricity is better than the machine quality, the continuous emergence of new electricity distribution subjects, the pilot opening of the electricity spot market, and the preliminary establishment of trading rules and market supervision, but also greatly promoted the market-based reform and the continuous emergence of new types of electricity, The vast number of industrial and commercial users actually shared the reform dividend. In 2016, the market trading electricity exceeded 1trillion kwh, accounting for 19% of the total social electricity consumption; In 2017, it reached 1.63 trillion kwh, an increase of 45%, accounting for 26%, of which the marketization rate of electricity sales in North China, South China and Northwest China exceeded 35%, and that in Mengxi, Yunnan and Guizhou reached 68.5%, 65.7% and 54.0%. In 2018, it will "significantly improve the liberalization of power generation and utilization plans"; In 2020, the proportion of market-oriented trading electricity will reach 80%. From 2016 to 2017, the state reduced electricity prices by examining and approving provincial electricity transmission and distribution prices, expanding direct electricity trading, and improving the implementation of basic electricity prices, allowing industrial and commercial enterprises to share more than 200billion yuan of electricity reform dividends, and reducing energy consumption costs by more than 320billion yuan, promoting the revitalization of the real economy

of course, the new electricity reform is still in progress, and there are also problems such as administrative intervention, bundled trading, simple price reduction, market barriers, power distribution obstruction, weak supervision, inconsistent progress, and going its own way. It is urgent to calibrate the orientation, actively respond, improve the market system, and achieve the reform goals in the second half of the new electricity reform

reviewing the two rounds of electricity reform, adhering to the idea of market-oriented reform, and basically following the reform logic of "opening - diversification - competition - market - Rules - Supervision - improvement", the power industry has moved from semi closed to open, from centralized to single to decentralized and diversified, which has promoted the formation of the power market, the competition of power enterprises and the rapid development of the industry, so that consumers not only "have access to electricity", but also have the right to choose and participate, Enjoy comprehensive energy services to benefit the society. If the power reform in 2002 focused on the "liberalization of the generation side" and solved the "quantity" problem of power shortage, the new power reform in 2015 focused on the "liberalization of the distribution side" and focused on solving the "quality" problem. Through production and marketing docking, market competition, improving efficiency, reducing power prices, and high-quality services, users "feel better and better"

challenges outweigh opportunities, honing power producers

practice has proved that the two rounds of power reform, especially the 2015 new power reform, are "double-edged swords" for power generation enterprises. Doing well is an opportunity, challenges are the norm, competing for market competitiveness, and reshaping power generation enterprises to a great extent. Power generation enterprises have broken the inherent mode under the previous planning system, bid farewell to the era of pure power generation, moved from the background to the foreground, and entered the fields of power distribution, comprehensive value-added services, and new power formats. They compete with new social power distribution companies and power enterprises in the field of "intersection", competing for power users, power distribution resources, and conducting bidding transactions. For the first time, they have truly experienced the baptism of the power market, and are deeply impressed by the business philosophy, safety management The development space, business model and customer service have had a significant and profound impact, gradually transforming to an integrated energy supplier, and insisting on paying equal attention to energy production and integrated services

in recent years, in order to cope with the general surplus in the power market and the fierce competition in the power sale market, the five power generation groups have actively established regional or cross regional marketing systems, broken through the shackles of a single power generation business, actively extended to the "lower" with a strategic height, entered the field of power distribution, cooling, heating and gas supply, and realized the integration of power generation (distribution), heat source, and combined cooling, heating, water and gas supply, Cultivate new business segments and benefit growth points. For example, in 2016, Huaneng Group participated in Yunnan, Shanxi, Chongqing and other power trading centers, and won 8 seats in the regional market management committee; Set up 26 regional energy sales companies; 25 incremental distribution business pilot projects were reported and 11 were shortlisted in the first batch of pilot projects. In 2017, we vigorously expanded the power sales business, completed the power sales of 42.1 billion kwh, and realized a gross profit of nearly 100 million yuan

at present, the state has identified three batches of 292 as the pilot of incremental distribution business reform. Although there is a lot of resistance to the development of distribution business, facing problems such as overall planning, incremental division, stock disposal, power access, pricing mechanism, project approval, profitability, information blockade, fierce competition and so on, the strong intervention of social capital has touched the power enterprises, and the distribution business has taken on a new look in the national industrial parks

the development of electricity sales business is in the ascendant. According to statistics, by the end of 2017, 3298 power selling companies had been publicized in the power trading center nationwide, distributed in 21 provinces and cities across the country. Shandong, Guangdong and Hebei are among the top three. Some power generation companies in Guangdong actively strive for power sales qualification, participate in the pilot bidding transaction in Guangdong, and explore valuable experience in actual combat. Some power selling companies and comprehensive energy service providers that sell electricity in one and are large industrial and commercial users make full use of their own advantages to frequently obtain market electricity. At present, the national power sales companies are changing the phenomenon that only a small part of them carry out business, there are "one low and two none", and there is simply "price difference", focusing on improving their professional service capabilities

it is particularly worth mentioning that some power generation enterprises seize the new opportunities of new power reform and economic structure transformation, and actively and steadily enter the "new business" of power. Such as clean heat source heating, coal-fired coupled biomass power generation, blue ocean nano power generation, decentralized, low wind speed and offshore wind power, solar thermal power generation; Hydrogen energy, charging pile, electric energy substitution, natural gas hydrate, large capacity energy storage, smart energy projects, comprehensive energy supply and services; Distributed energy, power distribution business, micro, pan energy and energy interconnection; Carbon capture, carbon assets and green card trading, energy financial services; Water industry, intelligent and efficient heat, natural gas pipeline and sales, etc. At the same time, realize the interconnection of energy infrastructure, the exchange of energy forms, the mutual use of energy technology data and information technology data, the mutual aid of energy distribution methods, and the mutual benefit of energy and consumption business models

times make heroes, adversity makes talents. Over the past 16 years, power producers have not only experienced the "cruel" baptism of coal power contradiction, industry loss and high debt ratio, but also experienced the "joy" of structural adjustment, transformation and upgrading, extraordinary development and repeatedly creating the first place in the world; It has also touched the laws of market alliance, price monopoly and punishment

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