The hottest new air outlet and practical problems

2022-09-22
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New air outlet and practical problems coexist. Where is the decommissioned power battery going

it has been ten years since the first large-scale use of electric buses in the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. In the past decade, the scale of production and sales of new energy vehicles has reached new highs, which has also driven the development of the power battery industry

according to the survey data of Orient Securities, from 2015 to 2017, new energy vehicles drove the large-scale shipment of upstream power batteries, and the cumulative shipment has exceeded 85gwh. According to the prediction of China Automotive Technology Research Center, the total scrapped power batteries in China will reach 120000-200000 tons from 2018 to 2020, and by 2025, this figure will exceed 750000 tons, with a market scale of more than 10 billion yuan

corresponding to the continuous growth of market scale, the immature recycling mode of power batteries in China and the mixing of good and evil in the industry have also become serious practical problems. If large-scale waste lithium-ion batteries are not handled properly, they will not only waste a lot of valuable resources and hinder the sustainable development of the industry, but also become a major hidden danger of destroying the ecological environment and endangering public health

"China has suffered losses in the management of battery recycling. For example, lead-acid batteries have been used in many scenarios, including the starting of automobile engines, and there have been many problems in their scrapping and recycling." Said sunfengchun, an academician of the Chinese Academy of engineering and a professor at Beijing University of technology

he believes that from the perspective of environmental protection and green sustainable development, the recycling and traceability management of power batteries is of great significance. It is necessary to guide in advance from the policy level, establish the recycling and treatment industrial system of retired power batteries, and ensure the healthy development of the whole new energy industry chain

recycling is urgent

"a 20g battery can pollute the water of three standard swimming pools. If it is discarded on the land, it can pollute 1 square kilometer of land for about 50 years. Imagine how much pollution it will cause to the environment if a few tons of electric vehicle power batteries are discarded in the natural environment, and a large number of heavy metals and chemicals enter the nature." Wu Feng, a professor at Beijing University of technology, once caused a great discussion in the industry

Li longhui, director of the data resource center and recycling Department of China Automotive Technology Research Center, told the national financial weekly that lithium-ion power batteries contain lithium, nickel, cobalt, manganese and other metals due to different cathode materials. From the perspective of environmental protection, if these metal materials are recycled improperly, they will cause heavy metal pollution and enter the human body through the biological chain

Wang Jingzhong, vice president of China Battery Industry Association, said that although lithium batteries do not contain mercury, cadmium and other toxic heavy metals, the electrolyte solute lithium hexafluorophosphate is toxic and easy to deliquesce. It reacts with trace moisture in the air to produce hydrofluoric acid, which will cause fluorine pollution. The chemical reactions such as hydrolysis, combustion and decomposition of the solvent may produce small molecular organics that are easily soluble in water, causing water pollution

according to caohongbin, a researcher at the Institute of process engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, once metals pollute the soil, they are more harmful than the pollution of wastewater. Moreover, simple organic pollution, the repair cost of a square soil is 600-1000 yuan, but it takes 1000-2000 yuan to repair a square soil with hexavalent chromium, and this only fixes the polluted metals and reduces the active migration, and the polluted metals have not been completely removed from the soil

"in addition to environmental pollution, if there is no standardized recycling treatment after a large number of power batteries are retired, there are still hidden dangers of public safety." Li longhui said

he said that if there is a short circuit inside or outside the waste battery, the positive and negative electrodes will produce a large current, resulting in high heat, causing the positive and negative electrodes to burn. Due to the combustion supporting effect of electrolyte, it will explode in the case of rapid reaction

in addition, Wang Jingzhong said that cobalt in lithium batteries is a very active element. If you don't pay attention to it a little, such as violent collision, it is also easy to cause combustion and explosion

xukaihua, chairman of Shenzhen greenmea High Tech Co., Ltd., said: "this (recycling of waste power batteries) is not only a technical and commercial problem, but also a social problem. From fuel vehicles to new energy vehicles, it is from black to green. If you do a good job in battery recycling, you can open the closed loop of green back to green. If you don't do a good job, you are going back from green to black."

"at the level of countries, enterprises and research institutes, the recycling of power batteries is a very urgent problem." Sunfengchun said, "the first batch of power batteries installed in the ten city thousand vehicle project, public sector demonstration and household electric vehicles a few years ago have reached the time of retirement. Although the number is not very large, how to dispose of it is of great concern."

lesson from the past

before recycling power battery materials such as lithium iron phosphate and ternary lithium for new energy vehicles, China has actually been in the field of battery recycling for many years, but the effect is not ideal

in the early years, driven by the application scenarios such as low-speed electric vehicles, China has become the world's largest lead-acid battery market. According to the data of the national development and Reform Commission, in 2017, the output of metal lead in China was 4.72 million tons, accounting for about 44% of the total global lead output. In the new version of the national directory of hazardous wastes implemented on August 1, 2016, waste lead-acid batteries were identified as hazardous wastes

however, Li Xinzhan, vice president of the renewable metals branch of China Nonferrous Metals Industry Association and deputy general manager of Henan Yuguang Gold lead Group Co., Ltd., said that the annual scrap of lead-acid batteries in China is about 6million tons, showing an increasing trend year by year. Although the recovery rate is high, there are still a lot of environmental pollution in the process of recovery, storage, disposal and utilization

in the view of Zhang Tianren, chairman of Zhejiang Tianneng group and other industry insiders, one of the important reasons is that China lacks a series of policy rules such as recycling and transportation standards and vehicle route control for waste lead batteries, which makes it difficult to promote the producer extension system, resulting in nowhere to go for the lead containing hazardous waste produced by enterprises, which leads to problems such as overdue stacking and even illegal transfer

it is understood that at present, the state imposes an additional 4% battery consumption tax on lead-acid battery enterprises, which is intended to prevent and control pollution. However, in the actual recycling process, the purchase price of waste lead-acid batteries is at a disadvantage compared with small workshops with informal treatment, which greatly weakens the competitiveness of formal enterprises

zhenghaidong, chairman of Wuhan Changguang power supply Co., Ltd., said that after the implementation of the 4% consumption tax on lead-acid batteries, the tax liability of the enterprise will increase by more than 10 million yuan a year

under such a market pattern, a considerable part of waste lead-acid batteries have gone to the "black market", which has also become the focus of the public security organs in recent years

for example, in June 2017, the environmental protection and public security departments of Tongzhou District, Nantong, Jiangsu jointly cracked five environmental violations involving the illegal dumping of waste lead-acid battery waste liquid; In January, 2018, Shanxi Provincial Public Security Department destroyed a criminal gang that used waste lead-acid batteries as raw materials to disassemble, melt and sell lead ingots

"the amount of waste lead-acid batteries recycled in the illegal recycling mode has occupied the recycling market for a long time, and is increasingly valued by countries all over the world. As a result, the living space of legal and formal recycling enterprises is becoming increasingly narrow, forming a situation in which 'bad money drives out good money'." Zhang Tianren said that this is a wake-up call for the current and future recycling of new energy power batteries

new "tuyere"

power battery recycling is a typical double-edged sword. Improper disposal will cause harm to the ecological environment, but if it is handled in an orderly and standardized manner, the recycling of waste power batteries also contains a lot of business opportunities

according to the general view of the industry, at present, China's new energy vehicles maintain the first position in the world in terms of sales proportion and ownership, and the continued expansion of market share in the future is also a probability event, which provides a broad prospect for power battery recycling, which has become another new trend in the titanium dioxide industry after horizontal integration

further, cobalt, nickel, lithium carbonate and other elements in power batteries have great market value and can bring economic benefits to disassembly and recycling

according to the analysis of the Research Report of Orient Securities, the metal content of different types of power batteries varies. According to the prediction of China's future scrap of power lithium-ion batteries, by 2023, the market value of recyclable valuable metals can reach: cobalt 7.3 billion yuan, nickel 8.4 billion yuan, lithium 14.6 billion yuan, manganese 850million yuan

according to the analysis of the prospective industry research institute, the supply of lithium resources in China is limited, and more than 90% of the demand depends on imports. Among the waste batteries represented by lithium iron phosphate batteries, the lithium content reaches 1.10%, significantly higher than the lithium ore developed and utilized in China

"although recycling seems to be the end of the power battery industry chain, it is actually the source of the industry chain." Gao Weiqiao, deputy general manager of Zhejiang Huayou Recycling Technology Co., Ltd., said that battery recycling makes the upstream raw material price controllable → reduce costs → ensure resource supply → revenue sharing → healthy development of the industry

according to the report on power battery recycling industry (2018) released by China Battery alliance, the market scale of battery recycling will reach about 6.5 billion yuan in 2020. After that, with the arrival of the peak of battery scrap, the market scale will soon exceed 10 billion yuan

it is precisely because of the circular economy industry opportunity of power batteries that the state and relevant competent departments have also started the construction of the recycling system of power batteries to encourage the development of the battery recycling market, which has led relevant enterprises to join the ranks of battery recycling

according to the data of battery alliance, in 2018, the number of power battery recycling enterprises has exceeded 400, and the number of new power battery enterprises in the first quarter of 2018 alone is equivalent to that in 2016

in addition to the rise of battery recycling enterprises, many vehicle enterprises have also joined the ranks of battery recycling under the institutional requirements of the competent departments and market drive. Vehicle enterprises such as Chang'an, BYD, BAIC new energy, Zhidou, etc. are all in action, starting to cooperate intensively with battery recycling enterprises to build a preliminary recycling system

practical problems

although China's power battery recycling industry has started, there are still many specific problems in practical work

on the one hand, from a technical point of view, there are some technical difficulties to be overcome in the recycling of power batteries in China

according to experts, there are two core technical difficulties. One is that the design of power battery pack (Group) is diverse. The internal and external structure design, module connection mode and process technology of battery pack are different. The type and structure of battery are complex and diverse, and the service life of battery is also diverse, which leads to disassembly difficulties

the second is the echelon utilization and recycling of power batteries. In terms of the residual value evaluation of retired batteries, the compatibility treatment of various batteries, the recycling of materials such as negative electrodes, and so on, a relatively mature technical route has not been formed

on the other hand, from the perspective of cost, the current decommissioning volume of power batteries has not fully formed a scale, so it is difficult for enterprises to achieve scale effect, resulting in difficulties in profitability

a person from a battery recycling enterprise told that the specifications and models of the first batch of retired waste power batteries in China are complex, and it is difficult for a single type of battery to form a scale. In the recycling scenario, although the energy storage project does not require high density of single batteries, the overall demand is relatively low

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